research, Writing

Icelandic Waterfalls Part 2

I visited Iceland in September 2019 as part of my writing research for novel-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming. Part of my Icelandic experience was the National Museum of Iceland, riding tour outside Reykjavik on the iconic Icelandic horse, exploring glaciers, black sand beaches, glacial lakes which influenced the Viking and Icelandic culture.


Gljúfurárfoss

Gljúfurárfoss is also known as its translation “dweller in the cave” referring to the large boulder that blocks the front of the waterfall, almost enclosing the waterfall itself and making it accessible only by the narrow cleft in the rock and by crossing the rivulet.

A large basalt boulder encloses most of the waterfall, leaving the freezing water of the Gljúfurá river as the only entrance and exit to the cavern and Gljúfurárfoss itself. The stepping stones are difficult to navigate but provide a narrow path along the edge of the slick and uneven cliff walls to where the cavern expands at the base of the waterfall.

Gljúfurárfoss drops from the height of 60m to the cavern floor. Another large basalt rock is positioned directly adjacent to the base of the waterfall. The cavern is freezing where the icy spray cascades from the waterfall and is trapped within the rock confines of the cave.

The view of Gljúfurárfoss where the Gljúfurá river cascades over the edge of the cliff, the rock surface covered in the dense moss and lichen. The Gljúfurá river has its source in the Tröllagil (Troll Gorge) as a spring-fed river before it passes through a marsh and along the northern edge of a lava field formed by Eyjafjallajökull glacier.

The moss and lichen covered rock surfaces of the upper part of the cavern and a view of the boulder (called Franskanef) that is suspended above the waterfall, hiding it from view on the outside and giving it the cave-like appearance.


Foss á Síðu Waterfall

Foss á Síðu is a small waterfall located in southeastern Iceland not far from the Ring Road, located between the larger settlements of Vik and Hof.

The river Fossá drops from a height of 30m over the basalt cliffs before continuing toward the Atlantic Ocean. At the foot of the Foss á Síðu waterfall is a farm inhabited since the 9th century and associated with local folklore legend of a curse, a ghost dog named Móri who cursed the family living on the farm (which is actually called Foss á Síðu), thereby cursing the family for nine generations.

Foss á Síðu is also the location of another Icelandic folklore. Located opposite the waterfall are basalt boulders called Dverghamrar or ‘dwarf rocks’ are believed to be the dwelling place of some of the ‘Hidden People’ of Icelandic folklore.


Seljlandsáfoss

Seljlandsáfoss is located 750m from the Ring Road in southern Iceland and only 29 km east from the popular Skogafoss waterfall. One of the most iconic Icelandic waterfalls, a deep pool of water at the base and sheltered space behind the waterfall itself provides a unique experience.

Seljlandsáfoss cascades over the ancient sea cliffs, falling from a height of 65m into a deep pool of water at the base of the waterfall called Kerið or Fosske.

A large cavernous space behind the waterfall provides some shelter from the drenching spray and allows some magnificent photography.

Seljlandsáfoss has its source in the Eyjafjallajökull glacier and during the warmer months, the glacial melt swells the Seljalandsa river, making Seljlandsáfoss one of the more powerful Icelandic waterfalls.

research, Writing

Icelandic Waterfalls Part 1

I visited Iceland in September 2019 as part of my writing research for novel-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming. Part of my Icelandic experience was the National Museum of Iceland, riding tour outside Reykjavik on the iconic Icelandic horse, exploring glaciers, black sand beaches, glacial lakes which influenced the Viking and Icelandic culture.


Írárfoss (Irish River Waterfalls)

The Írárfoss waterfalls are located in southeastern Iceland, where the river Írár flows from its source in the nearby Eyjafjallajökull glacier. The largest of three waterfalls from the Írár river, the Írárfoss waterfall is not considered among the more famous of southeast Iceland’s waterfalls with the larger and more spectacular Seljlandsáfoss waterfall located 10km west of Írárfoss.

As with many of the waterfalls in Iceland’s southeast, the source of the main rivers lie higher in the glaciers in the surrounding volcanic mountains. The rivers descend into the lowlands below via waterfalls, where rivulets and brooks are numerous throughout the lush meadows.

These glaciers and volcanic landscapes are also responsible for the black basalt rock that lifts above the lowlands meadows which are often suited for grazing horses and sheep.


Skógafoss Waterfall

Skogafoss waterfall is one of the most visited waterfalls in southern Iceland and is easily accessible just 500m from the Ring Road. Located 6km from Selfoss waterfall, the Skogafoss is one of the most powerful and impressive waterfalls in southern Iceland.

The Skogafoss is also associated with a legend of buried treasure by a Viking Age sorcerer, Þrasi Þórólfsson, who was responsible for directing the flow of two rivers during a great flood which is also associated with the volcanic eruption of in the Mýrdalsjökull Caldera. The legend of the artefact known as Þrasi’s ring is believed to be part of the treasure buried behind Skogafoss waterfall.

I was fascinated by these stone formations protruding from the front of Skogafoss. These reminded me of the Icelandic folklore about the trolls who become stone if caught by sunlight. These oddly shaped, moss and lichen covered rocks somehow seemed like figures to me, sitting beside the waterfall in the castoff from the spray.

Skogafoss is only 62m high and 32m wide but the strength of the waterfall is impressive with the view from above as waters plunge dramatically over the mossy edge, the rising spray and circling sea birds adds a drama to the small but powerful waterfall.

The view from the top of Skogafoss waterfall, the hiking track continues toward Þórsmörk, following the river Skogar upstream between the two glaciers, Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull and past numerous lesser waterfalls.

A view from the top of Skogafoss waterfall of the opposing cliffs overlooking the lowlands and the abundant farmlands that now occupying the fertile meadows where the sea once was. In the distance, the current shore of the sea is just visible, now located about 5 km from Skogafoss waterfall.

The vista from the top of Skogafoss of the lowlands and a distant remnant of the former sea cliffs that is now an isolated promontory in the middle of the lowlands.

The view opposite Skogafoss waterfall shows natural and untamed landscape with the cliffs consumed by passing low cloud as the autumn storms pass out to sea.

The cliffs surrounding Skogafoss are rugged and formed into striking rocky pinnacles and natural stone formations reminiscent of fantastic landscapes.

After the Skogafoss waterfall, the river Skogar continues to flow across the rich black sand beach at the base of the waterfall and out through the lowlands toward the sea.

Skógafoss waterfall is now located less than 5km from the sea but the black sand coastline has receded over time, with these former sea cliffs now isolated promontories rising above the lowlands.

The river Sokogar forms into many rivulets with the lowlands covered in black pebbles and black sand, the remnants from previous volcanic eruptions and the annual glacial melt. These natural changes to Icelandic landscape are visible on such a massive scale throughout southern Iceland and are some of the most memorable landscapes I’ve ever seen.

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Iceland: National History Museum

In September 2019, I visited the National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik. While in Iceland, I visited many of the wonderful major natural landmarks in the National Parks in the southern Iceland. You can read about my experiences riding Icelandic horses, exploring waterfalls, volcanoes and glaciers, an iceberg lake and black sand beaches.


The National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik is situated on a slight hill, overlooking pleasant gardens, walking pathways and a feature lake against the city centre. On the opposite hill is the imposing white form of Hallgrímskirkja, the iconic Lutheran parish church of Reykjavik.


One of the most iconic figures of Viking Age and Icelandic archaeology is the tiny bronze statue of Thor known as the Eyrarland Statue recovered from farmland near Akureyri, Iceland in the 1850s. It is believed to depict a scene from the Prose Edda where Thor recovers Mjollnir during a wedding ceremony, seated with the customary Icelandic cross-shaped hammer between his knees.


Items recovered from Viking Age settlements show the lifestyle and intricate artisan work of jewellery makers from the Viking Age. The square-shaped box brooches worn by women to pin dresses, various designs for cloak pins, silver earrings and pendants plus beaded necklaces.


The weapons recovered from archaeological excavations in Iceland were from the Viking Age with weapons including long swords made from iron, spear heads, arrow head and shield boss, and a range of battle axe heads also made from iron. The two Viking Age battle swords are placed diagonally across the display and were recovered from graves in South Iceland.

A Viking Age sword blade with sword hilt inlaid with bronze recovered from excavations along with several spear heads.

A 19th century sword and several Viking Age axe heads, the larger two are 10th century battle axe heads recovered from South Iceland.


The items recovered from archaeological excavations from south Iceland in the Pjorsa Valley, where settlements were buried beneath constant pumice and ash fall after volcanic eruptions and depopulation of the entire was expected to have occurred. The archaeological evidence reveals the Pjorsa Valley was continually inhabited despite volcanic activity with the presence of settlements indicating it remained a key trading route connecting North and South Iceland from settlement until the 17th century. Archaeological finds recovered included trade goods, weapons, jewellery and household items.


The horse was incredibly important to Icelandic culture and archaeological excavations have recovered decorated bronze stirrups, elaborate cheek pieces for horse bridles, bits and items of harness.

An example of a bronze stirrup from a Viking Age saddle and an accurate replica showing the detailed engraving and metalwork.

A burial of a Viking Age warrior from Iceland buried on horseback with a battle long sword across his back, the remnants of wooden scabbard still covering the blade. The burial also includes an axe-head, shield boss, arrows, coins and stones. The requirements of any man travelling into the unknown. The burial is continued into next image which includes the remains the warrior’s horse.

The burial of the mounted warrior was impossible to capture in a single image. The horse burial indicates that this was an Icelandic horse, the same breed as the only native horse in Iceland today. Connections between of the burial and the importance of the horse in Viking Age culture are obvious, everyday life relied on horses for battle, transport and labour. There are also reminders between a warrior’s death in battle and the female spirits of Norse myth, the Valkyries, who collected the worthy dead on the battlefield to feast with Odin in Valhalla.


Another of the burials in the Museum is this one possibly of a missionary with numerous grave items including the clam shells common among religious missionaries and monks that travelled throughout Europe and into Iceland.


One of the strongest themes in Viking lifestyle was the connection of each man and woman to the Fate laid out by the gods. Of course, the gods were answerable to their own pre-determined fate and the Norns were the beings responsible for weaving the futures of men and gods alike. The classic description of the Norns weaving is the loom where entrails are used instead of yarn and the scissors that cut the red thread from the weaving are cutting life from the tapestry. The weavers, the three Norns are the mysterious and revered figures that tend for Yggdrasil and seem answerable to none but themselves.


Weaving was an important part of common Viking Age liftsyle with the necessity to keep protected from the harsh climate and landscape encouraging the herding and shearing of the flocks of sheep. These sheep eventually became native to Iceland like the horse and their sturdy forms provided meat, dairy and wool for the Vikings. It allowed products such as mittens and wool-lined boots to be created on the looms.


The traditional farm and household implements from Viking Age settlements were simple equipment not much different from Iron Age settlements with tools for ploughing fields, constructing turf houses, various grinding stones for preparing grain before baking, bronze house keys and cooking implements.


The classic image of Vikings displays them as uncouth and unclean but there are many examples of the importance good personal appearance and cleanliness had for Viking culture. The stories of the uncivilised Vikings was obviously a matter of perspective from the opposing side and probably also a good deal propaganda. Skilled craftsmanship is clear is the elaborately carved bone drinking horns.


Viking Age bone hair combs, beaded bracelets and arm bands.


Viking Age culture includes the adaptation of many technologies recovered from Viking raids. The influences of the Irish Celtic culture on Iceland are several such indicators where papar appears in connection with the Irish monasteries. Dozens of copies remain of The Old Covenant, a legal document detailing how Iceland was subject to Norwegian rule, the Norwegian Logretta would administer justice for disputes giving its rulings on a regular basis.

A sheet of restored parchment from a copy of Jonsbok, the first written legal code for Iceland dated prior to the 14th century. The code includes segments of the Old Icelandic Commonwealth approved in 1241 and the includes Iceland falling beneath the Norwegian Logretta, the rule and judgement of the law courts and king of Norway.


A copy of the Book of Icelanders dated to 1681. The original was first written by Ari the Wise in 1130 AD and provided the first written history of the Iceland from discovery to settlement.


Trade was an essential part of Viking culture and the Icelanders were no different. The early settlements of Iceland were founded on trade between different settlements and when required, warfare between them. The hoarding of silver and gold was common in times of war or uncertainty to protect valuables from being stolen by the opposing force. The silver hoard includes gold coins and in the upper section of the display, an example of the scales used in trade to price valuable objects against pre-defined weights that many Vikings carried with them.


An example of different small carvings from the Viking Age on the upper left and right images which may have also been used as game pieces.

In 1000 AD King Olaf of Norway began pressuring those settlements under the control of Norway to become Christian. In response, Iceland did so without bloodshed through a meeting of the Alþingi, a gathering of Icelandic chieftains which is recognised today as Icelandic Parliament. The Alþingi decided to adopt Christianity and despite the formal declaration to worship as Christians, only a few Icelandic Chieftains were actually baptised. Many ornaments, jewellery and artwork indicate a combination of pagan and Christian beliefs were retained well into the 18th century in Iceland. The silver 10th century cruciform pendants indicate the blending of Christian and pagan motifs.

Viking Age traders used pre-defined weights to determine the value of trading items. Goods were priced according to weight and these stones with bronze inlay indicate a set of specific weights for trading purposes.

An example of 17th to 18th century crupper bosses from horse harness which were engraved with prayers and charms to protect the horse during battle.

research, Writing

Loki and Angrboda

A few weeks ago, I finished writing a series of scenes for my work-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming inspired by events described in the Norse Prose Edda and Poetic Edda. These involve the mysterious character of Angrboda, the “Hag of the Ironwood” who dwells in jotunheim, is alluded to as a witch and mother of many werewolves that hunt the ironwood. It is this horned witch, dwelling in the isolated woods that Loki has an adulterous affair and provides the three offspring who play central roles in the final battle of Ragnarok and the collapse of the Nine Worlds. The giantess Angrboda, who is barely mentioned in either the Prose or Poetic Eddas, is the mother the monstrous Wolf Frenrir, the Midgard Serpent Jormungand, and the unusual half-living, half-corpse ruler of Helheim, the indomitable Hel.
In my own re-imagining of this crucial series of scenes, I needed to decide if Loki was a willing participant in Angrboda’s affair, or if she were the powerful witch alluded to in the Prose and Poetic Eddas that was a deceiver with her own motivations. In the end, I decided Loki’s strange affair with Angrboda was the result of her own machinations and revenge against Odin and Loki caught in another’s schemes for a change. I am now moving closer to the final chapters in Part Three in Ragnarok Dreaming and the events immediately proceeding Ragnarok.

research, Writing

Virtual Plotting & Planning


I’ve been investigating new ways to develop my world-building for my novel-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming, inspired by Norse mythology. I am a highly visual person and my imagination (and writing) has become increasingly taxed by trying to remember my mental images and plans for complex landscapes, cities and worlds in my latest work-in-progress. I was keen to try new ways to visualise my scenes and my characters. I have been writing my draft for Ragnarok Dreaming using Scrivener which is a wonderful software for organising and planning large and small writing endeavours but I wanted something more to visualize world-building.
Enter World Anvil, designed with game builders and role players in mind, it is fantastic for writers and artists alike, including specific features and packages just for creative writers. Then there is FlowScape for map-making and up-close and personal, scene investigation. A wonderful virtual 3D designer for everything from large world maps to smaller regional sections.
I hope you are as excited as I am to see the final outcome of this combined venture using FlowScape and World Anvil to bring the world-building for my novel-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming to life!


Here’s a quick look at the virtual reality ‘map in progress’ for Midgard.

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Iceland: The Icelandic Horse

In early September 2019, I travelled to Iceland and visited Eldhestar Icelandic horse trekking company located less than 30 minutes drive southeast from the capital Reykjavik. The Icelandic horse was brought to the island by the Viking settlers. You can read about about Icelandic Viking history and the history of Reykjavik here. There are also a series of posts on iconic southeastern Icelandic waterfalls, glaciers and volcanoes and iconic Icelandic landscape.


Sculpture at Eldhestar stables, Iceland

Eldhestar translates to “volcano horses” in Icelandic and aptly named Eldhestar riding stables are located in the valley beneath the volcano Hengill, a region populated by natural hot springs, geysers and rivers. The nearby town of Hveragerði has a thriving horticulture industry using extensive greenhouses where heating and electricity is supplied by geothermal power from the nearby active Hengill volcano.

Town of Hveragerði, geysers, meadows

The Icelandic horse is native to Iceland, being brought to the island with the Viking settlers and isolated from other horse breeds throughout much of history. For this reason, Icelandic horses have not been exposed to other equine viruses if horses leave Iceland, they cannot be re-introduced but most be left in mainland Europe. There are also no other horse breeds allowed in Iceland but nearly every farm, hamlet or paddock contains Icelandic horses which outnumber the human population according to a public census several years ago! Icelandic horses are also semi-domesticated and, for the most part, are not stabled and even spend the harsh winter months foraging for feed in the snow drifts. This hardy character and the endurance of the breed to travel extensive distances over the volcanic rock and challenging terrain makes the horses beloved by many Icelanders.


Eldhestar guide & fellow tour member

I was interested in the Icelandic horse for several reasons. First, I had to see these legendarily tough horses for myself. They are certainly smaller than I’d expected but not in a noticeable way. When moving, they can cover huge amounts of ground with a very large stride, which includes the unique tolt, a gait that occurs naturally in most Icelandic horses. This trot, is uniquely fast and a longer-stride which is surprisingly comfortable.

My guide with Eldhestar was wonderful and the Icelandic horse I was riding (Freya) was enthusiastic and free-willed (a trait that I admire and seems expected in a breed that needn’t rely on human assistance). The Eldhestar riding tours can be as large as a month-long trek across the island, where an entire support team of horses are required, riding horses swapped each day for fresh mounts. In true Icelandic fashion, the 3-4 horses for each rider follow the riding line in a free-moving herd.

Apologies in advance for some jerky and imperfect video of a herd of Icelandic horses, the amazing landscape in the fertile floodplains.

Icelandic horses, meadows, estuary & distant Hengill volcano at Eldhestar Riding Stables, Iceland
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Sweden: Gotland Museum

I visited the Gotland Museum in Visby, Gotland Island, Sweden in early September 2019. You can read more about my research visit to the Uppsala Viking Age burial mounds, the History Museum in Stockholm and the medieval city of Visby on Gotland Island.


Gotland Museum contains an amazing variety of prehistoric Swedish and Viking Age archaeology and history. The collections include picture stones from Gotland Island, large collections from establishment of the official seal and recognition of Gotland county, the doomed Battle of Visby and Viking Age silver and gold hoards found on Gotland Island.

The Gotland Museum collections contain some of the oldest picture stones in Sweden with many dating from the prehistoric era of circa 9000 years ago and including the pre-Viking Age era of circa 700 AD. The earliest picture stones feature animal and geometric motifs before the more familiar Celtic styles of decoration are incorporated into the picture stones. Some of the largest picture stones are well over 6 ft and depict themes and motifs mentioned in Norse mythology. There is one famous picture stone that appears to depict common themes and characters from Norse mythology with a warrior riding into battle on an eight-legged horse, a wolf and a woman holding out a drinking horn. Below that scene is a Viking ship and armed warriors and possibly a Valkyrie or similar winged female archer.


There are also prehistoric human skeletal remains recovered from sites on Gotland Island that offer a rare glimpse into the ritualistic behaviour of the early inhabitants on the island.

The burial of a young woman in her early twenties has been called the “Hedgehog Girl” for the many items made from the local Gotland Island hedgehog which were used to decorate her grave. She was buried with five hedgehog jaws placed across her chest and would have originally worn a cap made from hedgehog skin while her dress was edged with beading made from fox and seal teeth. There were many hedgehog spines found beside her head and it was likely the cap was decorated with hedgehog spines while her grave goods also included offerings of hedgehog spines and teeth. The local inhabitants of Visby confirmed that the hedgehog is still an important symbol of Gotland Island and, despite the ram being on the official seal of Gotland Island, the hedgehog continues to be the symbolic animal of Gotland. There is a strong Association between the symbolic role the hedgehog played in the prehistoric communities and that the common animal today was of symbolic and, possibly ritualistic importance, in the past with some archaeologists interpreting the hedgehog girl had a ritualistic or shamanic role in the prehistoric community.

The grave of a young woman has been named the “Girl with the Flutes” for the total 35 of false bone flutes, 23 buried throughout the grave and another 12 placed directly beside her. The grave was also decorated with red ochre and contained fishing tackle, bone fishing hooks, a finely carved bone comb and bone jewellery. A clay figurine at the foot of the grave is difficult to discern but is either a bird or a seal. The grave was located on the cliffs overlooking the sea and combined with the numerous flutes, it has been suggested a literal or symbolic communication between the girl and the birds or the seals. Whatever the case may have been, the burial shows a strong symbolic nature to the burial where the sea and the role of the flutes was clearly important for the woman buried on the sea cliffs. There was likely a close connection between the prehistoric communities of Gotland Island, they were probably reliant on the sea for survival in times when crops or livestock failed.


The Viking Age was also well-known for the silver and gold hoards that were buried throughout Scandinavia and in other parts of Europe. Gotland Museum has an interesting display of the various hoards associated with the island. Many are vast collections of coins from different regions, silver bracelets, gold torques, silver and gold rings, beautifully crafted silver brooches for cloaks and the elaborately engraved square brooch used by women. Most of the items in these hoards have been recovered during excavations at specific archeological sites but in a few occasions, including a hoard of gold coins stored in a clay jar, an industrious rabbit warren disturbed the buried treasure, bringing the hoard once more to the surface.


Gotland Museum contained an interesting collection of archaeological and historical items from the pre-Viking Age era, Viking Age and through to the Middle Ages. Items from the Viking Age included axe blades and swords recovered from local archaeology sites, carved game pieces made from bone and horse teeth. A gilt weather vane for a Viking longship appears an extraordinary extravaganza by modern standards but retains the deep swirling pictographs on the surface. The arrival of Christianity to Gotland Island was ushered in slowly with early wooden churches a solemn, pagan-appearing place, the wooden form of Christ more resembling Odin during his search for knowledge as he hung upon the tree Yggdrasil. Symbolic jewellery like Thor’s hammer was slowly replaced by the crucifix and the combination ancient and “new” religions defined by the crucifix marked by runes scored into its surface. Other unusual items included Wolfs-head endpieces for a row of church pews, near-immaculately preserved leather boots and the old former seal of Gotland Island established in 1280.


The Battle of Visby was fought in 1361 when Danish forces invaded Gotland Island led by King Valdemar IV and the well-trained Danish army, the force numbering around 2000-2500. In contrast, the defending forces of Visby numbered only 2000 and were not trained infantrymen, or were older individuals, those who had survived previous battles and still bore the marks of injury. The result was a massacre, the Danish forces taking Visby and leaving many of the surviving defending forces of Visby so badly injured they later died from their injuries. The grisly remains from the mass graves outside Visby reveal the savage injuries caused by swords and axes, the damage inflicted from the mace and other battle weapons broke bones and shattered skulls. The healing of these injuries was inadequate and health of the individuals was compromised, with the bones badly set, often twisted and likely leaving the limb unusable.

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Australian Tawny Frogmouth Folklore

The tawny frogmouth is a species of nocturnal bird native to much of Australia. It is well known in Australian landscapes for the staring red-gold eyes, the camouflage resembling a branch or broken tree stump and it’s seemingly unworried response to human presence.

I was walking in the early morning at a pine forest near where I live and was fortunate enough to spot a tawny frogmouth camouflaged against a pine tree trunk.

Although the tawny frogmouth is often considered like an owl, it is more related to a nightjar but many Australian nocturnal birds share similar symbolic roles in indigenous fables and folklore.

Among the indigenous cultures of the Noongar from Western Australia, the nocturnal birds like the tawny frogmouth and owls were associated with the shamanic powers of the ‘clever men’ and the opposing dangerous forces of night:

Traditionally associated with the dark totem, the owl was believed to be a totemic familiar of the ‘boylya-man’ or sorcerer (”clever man”) and the darkness of night was perceived as a dangerous time when ghosts and supernatural spirits were ever-present.

Owl Beliefs in Nyungar Culture by Ken Macintyre and Barb Dobson.

The shamanic healers of many different indigenous Australia nations and cultures are sometimes known ‘clever men’ and in the Noongar cultures of Western Australia, the clever men were sometimes associated with the nocturnal birds to protect their tribe:

It is not uncommon to hear stories of how certain bulya or ‘clever’ men were believed to have the ability to transform themselves into a night bird such as the owl or mopoke and under this guise were able to watch over and ‘police’ campsites at night time to ensure that the inhabitants were safe from intruders, and also to act as a deterrent against young men becoming involved in sexual transgressions prior to initiation, or breaking the incest taboo. Culturally, the owl may be viewed as an agent of social control in that it is able to fly silently throughout the night, and aided by its powerful, penetrating night vision, is able to watch over people’s night time activities and then report back to the ‘clever man’ to whom it is considered a type of “familiar spirit’

Owl Beliefs in Nyungar Culture by Ken Macintyre and Barb Dobson.

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What the Heck is Cuneiform, Anyway?

Cuneiform is a fascinating and slightly mysterious writing style found in many archaeological sites of ancient Mesopotamia, including the modern countries of Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Israel and parts of Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia. Cuneiform was a geometric writing style inscribed on very small clay tablets. The Epic of Gilgamesh is a classic text inscribed on cuneiform tablets detailing the mythological exploits of the first historical Sumerian king, Gilgamesh of Uruk. I researched The Epic of Gilgamesh and cuneiform tablets for one of my short stories.

You can read more about cuneiform below:


The writing system is 6,000 years old, but its influence is still felt today

Source: What the Heck is Cuneiform, Anyway?

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Iceland’s Yule Trolls

In Icelandic tradition, the Yule lads are thirteen trolls who arrive one at a time on each of the 13 days before Christmas and depart in the order they arrived, on the days after Christmas Day. On Christmas Eve, the troll witch Gryla leaves the mountains to seek any children who had been ill-behaved or were without the protection of their parents, taking them back to the mountains where she cooks them into a stew for her lazy husband.


The thirteen Icelandic Yule Lads are described with the acts they are infamously known for tormenting human communities. More can be found at the Smithsonian Magazine here


Sheep-Cote Clod: He tries to suckle yews in farmer’s sheep sheds
Gully Gawk: He steals foam from buckets of cow milk
Stubby: He’s short and steals food from frying pans
Spoon Licker: He licks spoons
Pot Scraper: He steals unwashed pots and licks them clean
Bowl Licker: He steals bowls of food from under the bed (back in the old days, Icelanders used to sometimes store bowls of food there – convenient for midnight snacking?)
Door Slammer: He stomps around and slams doors, keeping everyone awake
Skyr Gobbler: He eats up all the Icelandic yogurt (skyr)
Sausage Swiper: He loves stolen sausages
Window Peeper: He likes to creep outside windows and sometimes steal the stuff he sees inside
Door Sniffer: He has a huge nose and an insatiable appetite for stolen baked goods
Meat Hook: He snatches up any meat left out, especially smoked lamb  Candle Beggar: He steals candles, which used to be sought-after items in Iceland


Since 1746, the Yule trolls became less scary and presented as more mischievous, trickster characters who were depicted as jolly Santa Claus-like figures who left gifts for the well-behaved children and potatoes for the ill-behaved ones. The Yule trolls as they had been described in early traditions and folktales described them as emaciated and clothed in rags. There is a current movement in Iceland to return the Yule Lads to their original descriptions and depictions as the vagabond and desperate orphans accompanying Gryla.