reads, Recent Reads

The Harp of Kings



From the Blurb:

BARD. WARRIOR. REBEL.
Eighteen-year-old Liobhan is a powerful singer and an expert whistle player. Her brother has a voice to melt the hardest heart, and is a rare talent on the harp. But Liobhan’s burning ambition is to join the elite warrior band on Swan Island. She and her brother train there to compete for places, and find themselves joining a mission while still candidates. Their unusual blend of skills makes them ideal for this particular job, which requires going undercover as traveling minstrels. For Swan Island trains both warriors and spies.

Their mission: to find and retrieve a precious harp, an ancient symbol of kingship, which has gone missing. If the instrument is not played at the upcoming coronation, the candidate will not be accepted and the kingdom will be thrown into disarray. Faced with plotting courtiers and tight-lipped druids, an insightful storyteller, and a boorish Crown Prince, Liobhan soon realizes an Otherworld power may be meddling in the affairs of the kingdom. When ambition clashes with conscience, Liobhan must make a bold decision—and the consequences may break her heart.”

Review:
The Harp of Kings by New-Zealand born author Juliet Marillier is the first novel in The Warrior Bards, a new historical fantasy series.

The Harp of Kings follows three trainee warriors of Swan Island, hopeful to join the ranks of the elite warriors and spies hired by Chieftains, lords and occasionally kings throughout kingdom of Erin to resolve conflicts or gather information. The protagonist is the trainee Liobhan but concurrent storylines are also narrated by her brother Broc and fellow Swan Island trainee, Dau. The three trainees are chosen to join the experienced Swan Island team on a mission to a king’s court, where the crowning of a new king traditionally requires playing a ceremonial harp, an ancient instrument symbolising the bonds of faith between the Fae and the mortal realms. Both Liobhan and Broc are trained musicians and children raised by a wise-woman. The Swan Island team are hired to find the stolen harp before the kingship ceremony or risk discontent or the new king’s reign might be considered cursed.

Liobhan and Broc, hired to play at the king’s court while they try to uncover any information about the location of the stolen harp or who might have reasons to steal the harp and threaten the new king’s claim to the throne. Dau is hired in the stables, disguised as a mute farrier acting as support to Liobhan and Broc. Soon, Dau and Liobhan discover the prince has a violent temper and a history of oppressing his people. Broc focuses his investigations on the Druid community where the harp was supposed to be kept between crowning ceremonies. There, Broc learns an old tale of the harp’s origin from Faylan, a promising noviciate who sends him to a wise-woman in the nearby forest, recently cursed by eldritch crows. But Broc has a yearning for the Otherworld and enters it, hoping to uncovers the answers to his own secrets about the origins of his uncanny talent as a harpist and singer. While Broc is in the Otherworld, Liobhan and Dau discover important secrets about the identity of the Druid noviciate Faylan.

My Thoughts?

The Harp of Kings has several layers where aside from exploring the mystery of the stolen harp, deeper truths must also be uncovered by the Swan Island trainees about themselves. Liobhan struggles to trust others where she has relied on Broc, she must now trust Dau, a man for whom she has misgivings, falsely placed. Dau is forced to confront the dark fears of his past and challenge his closed-mindedness and Broc decide which path he will take to determine his own future.

Conclusion?

The Harp of Kings is a wonderful Fantasy read, rich in historical detail and early Irish culture. A highly recommended read for old and new fans of Juliet Marillier alike. A must read!

Short Stories, Writing

Fantasy novella & mythic parallels

I recently finished a novella inspired from my initial research for my latest novel draft Ragnarok Dreaming into Norse mythology and Australian Aboriginal legends. On the surface, there might seem little in common between the Viking legends and those of the oldest continuous culture on the planet. The purpose of the novella was not to re-tell any stories or legends, because these are not my ancestry nor mine to tell, instead, I wanted to explore the common elements shared between them. The themes that unite all humanity across time and place. In this, I was drawn as I often am, to the fascinating Trickster figures in legends and stories throughout the world. In Norse mythology, Loki is the Trickster figure and protagonist of the novella relocated into a cosmos inspired by Australian dreaming stories. The Trickster figure who aids Loki is Wahn, the Crow in many Aboriginal legends. The novella was a re-imagining of the parallels and opposites in legends and myth, expanding on what was interesting research for Ragnarok Dreaming.

research, Writing

Iceland: Iceberg Lagoons & Beaches

In early September 2019, I visited Iceland as part of my writing research into Norse mythology, Viking Age history. The role of the landscape has been important in shaping the Icelandic legends and I was fortunate enough to see some of the archaeological and cultural history as well as those in the natural landscape. On a tour of the unique southern Icelandic landscape, I visited iconic waterfalls, glaciers, black sand beaches, glacial lagoons and rode Icelandic horses.


Jökulsárlón is a glacial lagoon for Breidamerkurjokullon, the tongue of Europe’s largest ice cap, Vatnajökull glacier. Jökulsárlón lagoon is located between the southern Icelandic town of Hofn and Skaftafell nature reserve. While visiting Jökulsárlón, I took one of the boat tour of the lagoon (only offered in warmer months) to get a closer look at the icebergs formed from the glacial melt, which creates the lagoon.

The icebergs of Jökulsárlón lagoon are part of the glacier that, as it melts break off into the lagoon and are washed out into the ocean. Within Jökulsárlón are a surprisingly diverse marine life. There were several species of sea birds, gulls and other large water birds who frequented the lagoon outlet where the icebergs flowed swiftly into the ocean. These birds were remarkably savvy at navigating the swift currents to avoid collision with the icebergs. There were also several species of shy seals who avoided the boats but were frequently seen observing our passage from the beneath the shelter of nearby icebergs.

The clear divide between the waters of Jökulsárlón lagoon and the glacier beyond, the waterline of the lagoon contained some larger icebergs that had clustered along the edges.

The icebergs that break off the glacier into Jökulsárlón and pass through the lagoon were stunning to behold the clear layers visible to the eye as the boat manoeuvred around them.

The view from near the ocean, looking back along the lagoon outlet from Jökulsárlón with the glacier in the background.


“Diamond beach” is a popular site among many photographers for the iconic images of the icebergs that pass from the lagoon outlet of Jökulsárlón to where they meet the ocean.

The large icebergs were an amazing sight as they were buffeted by the waves coming into shore. It was surreal and beautiful to experience such a unique landscape.

The black sand beach was scattered with icebergs in various stages of melt as the fresh glacial water they are formed from dissolved rapidly in the warmer salty ocean temperatures.

Walking along diamond beach was one of the most spectacular places I had ever visited. It was pleasure to be there and witness such a natural but phenomenal landscape.

research, Writing

Iceland: Reynisfjara Beach

In early September 2019, I visited Iceland as part of my writing research into Norse mythology, Viking Age history. The role of the landscape has been important in shaping the Icelandic legends and I was fortunate enough to see some of the archaeological and cultural history as well as those in the natural landscape. On a tour of the unique southern Icelandic landscape, I visited iconic waterfalls, glaciers, black sand beaches, glacial lagoons and rode Icelandic horses.


Reynisfjara beach is located southwest of Vik on the southern Icelandic coast. The popular site was busy when I visited despite the incoming autumn storm. Reynisfjara beach has the iconic black volcanic sand of Icelandic beaches and the larger stones frequently washed ashore from volcanic eruptions and subsequent floodwaters carrying debris from the coastline into the ocean. Reynisfjara is also known for the large basalt stone pillars off the coast, remnants of ancient cliffs before sea level changes over millenia have eroded them into current form. These pillars and the nearby cliffs are associated with many Viking Age legends and myths.

The unusual basalt pillar-like formations of the cliffs on Reynisfjara beach are a popular attraction. These distinctive columns have such a uniform appearance that it is hard to remember they are created by natural geological processes and not by human hand.

In many Icelandic legends and folklore, the caves at Reynisfjara beach were thought to be the work of the dark elves (dwarves), and mark the entrance to undergournd passages where the Hidden dwell. Seeing the distinctive cliffs and caverns for myself, I can readily imagine how such caves would be an entrance to Svartalfheim itself.

The Reynisdrangar sea stacks are large basalt pillars located off the shore of Reynisfjara beach. One of the legends surrounding these twin pillars is that they are actually trolls who were wading out into the ocean and caught by the sun’s rays. In Icelandic folklore, trolls are unable to tolerate sunlight and are immediately transformed into stone. These twin stone pillars represent two trolls who failed to return to the sea cave before first sunlight.

On the opposite end of the Reynisfjara beach is another of the unusual sea stacks, this one is furthest from the coastline at the southernmost tip of the Arch of Dyrhólaey. This stone formation has another legend, also about an unlucky troll transformed to stone. In this folktale, the troll was late returning from a sea voyage and has been caught by the sunlight while still hauling his boat onto the shore. Both the boat and the troll have been turned to stone, forever petrified in place.

One of the most striking things about Reynisfjara beach was the unpredictable ocean. For visitors, there are warning signs about the dangers of wave surges onto the shore which are unpredictable and have been known to drag groups of unwary tourists out into the freezing waters which are dangerous with rips and strong currents. On the day I visited, a storm was blowing off the coast and the surge of the waves was unpredictable which only increased the unusual sense of wildness about the place. A magical part of Iceland but one requiring great respect and vigilance.

reads, Recent Reads

Gods of Jade and Shadow

From the blurb:

“The Jazz Age is in full swing, but Casiopea Tun is too busy cleaning the floors of her wealthy grandfather’s house to listen to any fast tunes. Nevertheless, she dreams of a life far from her dusty, small town in southern Mexico. A life she can call her own. Yet this new life seems as distant as the stars, until the day she finds a curious wooden box in her grandfather’s room. She opens it–and accidentally frees the spirit of the Mayan God of Death, who requests her help in recovering his throne from his treacherous brother. Failure will mean Casiopea’s demise, but success could make her dreams come true. In the company of the strangely alluring god and armed with her wits, Casiopea begins an adventure that will take her on a cross-country odyssey, from the jungles of Yucatán to the bright lights of Mexico City–and deep into the darkness of the Mayan underworld.”


Review:

I recently read Gods of Jade and Shadow by Mexican-born Canadian author Silvia Moreno-Garcia, a historical fantasy inspired by the folklore of the Popol Vuh, a Mayan creation myth and retold in 1920s Jazz-era Mexico featuring Xibalba, the Mayan Underworld and formidable the twins-lords, Hun-Kame and Vacub-Kame.
The unlikely heroine of Gods of Jade and Shadow is Casiopea Tun, the a poor cousin and treated like a servant in her grandfather’s house after her father’s death forced her destitute mother to return home to rural Uu­kumil. But Casiopea is proud and independent but as she grows to adulthood her dreams have become crippled by the confines of the small, rural world of Uukumil and she only dreams now of escaping it. In a sudden act of defiance, Casiopea opens a chest in her grandfather’s room, unknowingly releasing the death-god imprisioned within. The god is Hun-Kame, Lord of Xibalba who has been imprisoned in the chest since Casiopea’s grandfather aided his twin Vacub-Kame, to take control of the Underworld.
Once again free, Hun-Kame must reunite the missing pieces of himself taken from his body to regain his full-power. There is a cost to regaining his power. Hun-Kame maintains his mortal form only through Casiopea who has a shard of his bone embedded in her hand. If she removes the bone shard, Hun-Kame will fade and his brother take dominance of the Underworld forever. But Casiopea has little interest in letting Hun-Kame lose, he offers her escape from the dull existence in Uukumil, the chance to see more of the world, even as she knows the bone shard within her drains her life while strengthening Hun-Kame’s. Together Casiopea and Hun-Kame must race against time to restore the missing parts of Hun-Kame’s body and reunite his power before too much of Casiopea’s strength is drained and before Hun-Kame risks becoming mortal. It is a delicate game to maintain the balance between life and death and soon, Casiopea and Hun-Kame begin to hope for more than the original bargain they set themselves.
In Xibalba, Vacub-Kame had bitterly spent the ages in the footsteps of his twin where Hun-Kame was the rightful ruler of the Underworld. In the final treachery that allowed Vacub-Kame to imprison his twin brother and take Xibalba for himself, a greater plan has grown to destroy Hun-Kame forever and restore the dominion of Xibalba over earth, returning the ancient Mayan practices of blood sacrifices and terror in his worship. In Baja California, Hun-Kame and Vacub-Kame must finally battle for rule of Xibalba, choosing champions to act in their stead. Hun-Kame chooses Casiopea while Vacub-Kame chooses her cousin, Martin, who was as belittled by their grandfather in Uukumil as Casiopea but found solace in belittling his poor cousin. There is no love loss between Casiopea and Martin.

My Thoughts?
Gods of Jade and Shadow is much more than a retelling of a mythic contest between two death gods, the lords of Xibalba. The novel is gloriously detailed in the setting, from the vibrant Jazz-era Mexico to the nightmarescape of the Underworld, Xibalba. The characters are rich and intriguing, the central message throughout Gods of Jade and Shadow is of the importance in maintaining balance. This central theme is reflected in the plot, and in the external and internal struggles of characters. The dream-like quality to the narration adds to making this novel feel like a classic myth, a dark fairytale and a joy to read.

The Conclusion:
Highly recommended! A glorious, dark folktale re-telling.

Short Stories, stories

Retelling & Examining Ragnarok

In a recent short story, I explored the accounts in Norse mythology about Ragnarok, the final battle fought between the giants and the gods. Similar to my recently finished draft novel Ragnarok Dreaming, this story is a retelling of battle of Ragnarok from the perspective of Loki. My research drew on the classic texts, The Poetic Edda and Prose Edda and possible motivations behind Loki’s treachery and murder of Odin’s son Baldr. The story is an account of the aftermath of Loki’s fateful actions, deceit of Baldr’s blind brother Hodr, who shoots the arrow Loki has given him, the only item in the Nine Worlds Loki knows is capable of killing Baldr. For Loki, the subsequent capture and imprisonment by the Aesir, the torture and binding underground are when the schism between Odin and Loki seems to really occur. In this story, my retelling explored what possible motivations had led Loki to murder Baldr even via a-proxy, knowing Odin’s trust in him would be broken forever. The outcome of Ragnarok had been foretold by the witch Gullveig to Odin in Loki’s presence eons before when even Odin’s considerable foresight would prove unable to avoid the fatal confrontations between foes and inevitable deaths on both sides of the battlefield. If the doom of the gods and giants had been so securely foretold, this story explored what events could have led to Loki’s irredeemable actions and final rebellion against Odin.

reads, Recent Reads

Dark Currents

Dark Currents is the first instalment in a new urban fantasy series Agent of Hel by American author Jacqueline Carey.
Set in the picturesque Midwestern tourist town of Pemkowet, protagonist Daisy Johanssen is a hell-spawn, daughter of a demon and mortal mother and the chosen representative and enforcer for the Norse goddess Hel, ruler of the Underworld and the Fae community of Pemkowet. Daisy acts as an intermediary between the mortal community in her role as official Fae liaison for Pemkowet Police Department and the Fae creatures that call Pemkowet home, vampires, fairies, pixies, nymphs, ghouls, werewolves, brownies and many other eldritch beings drawn to the magical powers centered around Yggdrasil and the Underworld ruled by Hel. On initial appearance, Pemkowet is an ordinary tourist town but the sudden death of a wealthy college student and involvement of the Fae community requires Daisy to act as liaison and solve the issues quickly without disrupting the balance between mortal and Fae communities.
But Daisy has her own issues, not controlling her demonic heritage could have consequences for her ability to succeed as Hel’s liaison, where Daisy’s temptation to unleash her anger and high emotions often leads to unintended violent effects on the world around her. Daisy has a race against time to discover who murdered the human college student and the purportaitors of crimes against the Fae before the delicate balance of Pemkowet dissolves into chaos.
Dark Currents was an enjoyable urban fantasy with a well-researched folkloric and mythology background which provided great foundations for the unusual setting of the novel. It was a novel of opposites that matched the town it is set in: a story that was light and dark, amusing but also with serious undertones. I look forward to reading the other novels in the Agent of Hel Trilogy!

research, Writing

Iceland: Volcanoes and Glaciers

In early September 2019, I visited southern Iceland for a week. As part of my research into Viking Age history, the legends and mythology, landscape has been important in shaping Icelandic legends. I was fortunate enough to see some of archaeological and cultural history of National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik, ride Icelandic horses, visit several iconic waterfalls and tour the some of the unique Icelandic landscape.


Southern Iceland boasts stunning waterfalls, glaciers and volcanoes. The largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull is located within Vatnajökull National Park which contains the largest and most active volcanoes in Iceland. On the southern side of Vatnajökull, the glacier completely covers the volcano beneath. Known as Öræfajökull, the glacier enveloping the volcano is also the highest peak in Iceland with the mountain peak, Hvannadalshnúkur reaching 2, 000 m above sea level. Although peaks in Iceland are not high but European standards, the entirety of the huge glacier Vatnajökull, envelops several active volcanoes. The size of Vatnajökull is impressive with the Ring Road skirting the edge of the glacier along the coastline from just east of Vik and continuing past Hof which was the furthest extent of our tour.

A closer view of a southern outlet glacier of Vatnajökull and the tallest peak Hvannadalshnúkur visible on the left with the glacier spreading across the flatter meadows below the mountain ridges.
The path of the outlet glacier from Vatnajökull as it spreads across the landscape below, an impressive thick wall of glacier.
A clear image of the passage of the glacier has carved through the mountain ridge with the peak of Hvannadalshnúkur obscured by low cloud in the background.
A smaller, glacial outlet carves a path through the basalt rock, the slow progression of the glacier and force required for the rock to be worn down or moved over time is incredibly impressive.

Myrdalsjokull, is the fourth largest glacier in Iceland and located further west toward Reykjavik than Vatnajökull but the outlet glacier, Sólheimajökull is popular for glacier walks and all-year tours with frequent monitoring of the nearby active Katla volcano located beneath the distant ice cap of Myrdalsjokull. The outlet glacier Sólheimajökull is easily accessible via sign-posted valley entrances off the main the Ring Road along the southern coastline with a 20 minute hike to a glacial lagoon.

The 20 minute hike to the Sólheimajökull glacier includes traversing the edge of the lagoon formed by glacial melt. Each year the size of the lagoon increases with warmer global weather influencing the temperature and extent of thawing and glacial melt each year. In Iceland, the constant volcanic activity means that the glaciers are often streaked or covered in volcanic ash and these are known as “dirty glaciers” due to their black streaked appearance from frequent volcanic eruptions. The lagoon is also formed from volcanic sand and large pinnacles of volcanic ash are common on the glacier surface.

Sólheimajökull glacier where it meets the lagoon is visibly streaked with volcanic ash revealing the older glacier layers of pale blue beneath.
A closer example of the height of the glacier itself as we hiked across the front edge and the volcanic ash that covers the surface of the glacier.
An example of a large cavernous opening in the glacier used by experienced climbers for tours. A large mound of volcanic ash is obvious in the foreground.
A narrow crevices visible while walking across the glacier surface also shows how freely melt water flows through the glacier and the entire structure is constantly changing form.
This stretch of the Myrdalsjokull continues another 22km toward the pole. In the near distance, a large pinnacle of volcanic ash with the uneven glacial surface covered in ash typical of the “dirty” glaciers.
The expanse of the glacier continues toward the basalt mountain ridges but the passage the glacier has carved through the surrounding rock is impressive.
A good view of the observable layers in the glacier with the alternating ash deposits and glacial layers
Contrast between the surrounding mountain ridges of the valley and the glacier outlet as it progresses through the landscape
The surrounding mountain ridges have numerous waterfalls which empty into the outlet glacier, the larger expanse of Myrdalsjokull also extends across many of the surrounding mountains behind where we were hiking
View from the surface of Sólheimajökull glacier tracing a narrow crevices extending back toward the ice cap of Myrdalsjokull
As we headed back from the hike, it began to rain. The rain began to quickly melt the glacier carving these flowing tunnels into the surface of the ice we were walking across.

The final view looking back to Myrdalsjokull as the weather closed around the glacier and lagoon, rain and light snow obscuring much of the way back we had come.

A short video on Solheimjoskull glacier showIng some of the surrounding landscape filmed despite the incredible strength of the erratic wind across the glacier threatening to knock me down if not for the crampons holding fast in the ice.

Writing

Ragnarok Dreaming: A First Draft!


It’s been over 12 months of writing but the first draft of Ragnarok Dreaming is finally finished. Inspired by Norse mythology, I read and studied the Prose Edda and Poetic Edda, many retellings and interpretations of the Norse myths and sagas, studied the archaeological record of prehistoric Scandinavia and history of the Viking Age. In September 2019, I was lucky enough to travel to Sweden and Iceland for some research and to see the landscapes that influenced Norse mythology and Viking cultures. I intend to take a break from Norse mythology before the editing on this first draft (a huge manuscript of 132,000 words!) can begin. You can always keep updated on my writing and research by following this blog!

research

Iceland: National History Museum

In September 2019, I visited the National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik. While in Iceland, I visited many of the wonderful major natural landmarks in the National Parks in the southern Iceland. You can read about my experiences riding Icelandic horses, exploring waterfalls, volcanoes and glaciers, an iceberg lake and black sand beaches.


The National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik is situated on a slight hill, overlooking pleasant gardens, walking pathways and a feature lake against the city centre. On the opposite hill is the imposing white form of Hallgrímskirkja, the iconic Lutheran parish church of Reykjavik.


One of the most iconic figures of Viking Age and Icelandic archaeology is the tiny bronze statue of Thor known as the Eyrarland Statue recovered from farmland near Akureyri, Iceland in the 1850s. It is believed to depict a scene from the Prose Edda where Thor recovers Mjollnir during a wedding ceremony, seated with the customary Icelandic cross-shaped hammer between his knees.


Items recovered from Viking Age settlements show the lifestyle and intricate artisan work of jewellery makers from the Viking Age. The square-shaped box brooches worn by women to pin dresses, various designs for cloak pins, silver earrings and pendants plus beaded necklaces.


The weapons recovered from archaeological excavations in Iceland were from the Viking Age with weapons including long swords made from iron, spear heads, arrow head and shield boss, and a range of battle axe heads also made from iron. The two Viking Age battle swords are placed diagonally across the display and were recovered from graves in South Iceland.

A Viking Age sword blade with sword hilt inlaid with bronze recovered from excavations along with several spear heads.

A 19th century sword and several Viking Age axe heads, the larger two are 10th century battle axe heads recovered from South Iceland.


The items recovered from archaeological excavations from south Iceland in the Pjorsa Valley, where settlements were buried beneath constant pumice and ash fall after volcanic eruptions and depopulation of the entire was expected to have occurred. The archaeological evidence reveals the Pjorsa Valley was continually inhabited despite volcanic activity with the presence of settlements indicating it remained a key trading route connecting North and South Iceland from settlement until the 17th century. Archaeological finds recovered included trade goods, weapons, jewellery and household items.


The horse was incredibly important to Icelandic culture and archaeological excavations have recovered decorated bronze stirrups, elaborate cheek pieces for horse bridles, bits and items of harness.

An example of a bronze stirrup from a Viking Age saddle and an accurate replica showing the detailed engraving and metalwork.

A burial of a Viking Age warrior from Iceland buried on horseback with a battle long sword across his back, the remnants of wooden scabbard still covering the blade. The burial also includes an axe-head, shield boss, arrows, coins and stones. The requirements of any man travelling into the unknown. The burial is continued into next image which includes the remains the warrior’s horse.

The burial of the mounted warrior was impossible to capture in a single image. The horse burial indicates that this was an Icelandic horse, the same breed as the only native horse in Iceland today. Connections between of the burial and the importance of the horse in Viking Age culture are obvious, everyday life relied on horses for battle, transport and labour. There are also reminders between a warrior’s death in battle and the female spirits of Norse myth, the Valkyries, who collected the worthy dead on the battlefield to feast with Odin in Valhalla.


Another of the burials in the Museum is this one possibly of a missionary with numerous grave items including the clam shells common among religious missionaries and monks that travelled throughout Europe and into Iceland.


One of the strongest themes in Viking lifestyle was the connection of each man and woman to the Fate laid out by the gods. Of course, the gods were answerable to their own pre-determined fate and the Norns were the beings responsible for weaving the futures of men and gods alike. The classic description of the Norns weaving is the loom where entrails are used instead of yarn and the scissors that cut the red thread from the weaving are cutting life from the tapestry. The weavers, the three Norns are the mysterious and revered figures that tend for Yggdrasil and seem answerable to none but themselves.


Weaving was an important part of common Viking Age liftsyle with the necessity to keep protected from the harsh climate and landscape encouraging the herding and shearing of the flocks of sheep. These sheep eventually became native to Iceland like the horse and their sturdy forms provided meat, dairy and wool for the Vikings. It allowed products such as mittens and wool-lined boots to be created on the looms.


The traditional farm and household implements from Viking Age settlements were simple equipment not much different from Iron Age settlements with tools for ploughing fields, constructing turf houses, various grinding stones for preparing grain before baking, bronze house keys and cooking implements.


The classic image of Vikings displays them as uncouth and unclean but there are many examples of the importance good personal appearance and cleanliness had for Viking culture. The stories of the uncivilised Vikings was obviously a matter of perspective from the opposing side and probably also a good deal propaganda. Skilled craftsmanship is clear is the elaborately carved bone drinking horns.


Viking Age bone hair combs, beaded bracelets and arm bands.


Viking Age culture includes the adaptation of many technologies recovered from Viking raids. The influences of the Irish Celtic culture on Iceland are several such indicators where papar appears in connection with the Irish monasteries. Dozens of copies remain of The Old Covenant, a legal document detailing how Iceland was subject to Norwegian rule, the Norwegian Logretta would administer justice for disputes giving its rulings on a regular basis.

A sheet of restored parchment from a copy of Jonsbok, the first written legal code for Iceland dated prior to the 14th century. The code includes segments of the Old Icelandic Commonwealth approved in 1241 and the includes Iceland falling beneath the Norwegian Logretta, the rule and judgement of the law courts and king of Norway.


A copy of the Book of Icelanders dated to 1681. The original was first written by Ari the Wise in 1130 AD and provided the first written history of the Iceland from discovery to settlement.


Trade was an essential part of Viking culture and the Icelanders were no different. The early settlements of Iceland were founded on trade between different settlements and when required, warfare between them. The hoarding of silver and gold was common in times of war or uncertainty to protect valuables from being stolen by the opposing force. The silver hoard includes gold coins and in the upper section of the display, an example of the scales used in trade to price valuable objects against pre-defined weights that many Vikings carried with them.


An example of different small carvings from the Viking Age on the upper left and right images which may have also been used as game pieces.

In 1000 AD King Olaf of Norway began pressuring those settlements under the control of Norway to become Christian. In response, Iceland did so without bloodshed through a meeting of the Alþingi, a gathering of Icelandic chieftains which is recognised today as Icelandic Parliament. The Alþingi decided to adopt Christianity and despite the formal declaration to worship as Christians, only a few Icelandic Chieftains were actually baptised. Many ornaments, jewellery and artwork indicate a combination of pagan and Christian beliefs were retained well into the 18th century in Iceland. The silver 10th century cruciform pendants indicate the blending of Christian and pagan motifs.

Viking Age traders used pre-defined weights to determine the value of trading items. Goods were priced according to weight and these stones with bronze inlay indicate a set of specific weights for trading purposes.

An example of 17th to 18th century crupper bosses from horse harness which were engraved with prayers and charms to protect the horse during battle.