Short Stories, stories

Retelling & Examining Ragnarok

In a recent short story, I explored the accounts in Norse mythology about Ragnarok, the final battle fought between the giants and the gods. Similar to my recently finished draft novel Ragnarok Dreaming, this story is a retelling of battle of Ragnarok from the perspective of Loki. My research drew on the classic texts, The Poetic Edda and Prose Edda and possible motivations behind Loki’s treachery and murder of Odin’s son Baldr. The story is an account of the aftermath of Loki’s fateful actions, deceit of Baldr’s blind brother Hodr, who shoots the arrow Loki has given him, the only item in the Nine Worlds Loki knows is capable of killing Baldr. For Loki, the subsequent capture and imprisonment by the Aesir, the torture and binding underground are when the schism between Odin and Loki seems to really occur. In this story, my retelling explored what possible motivations had led Loki to murder Baldr even via a-proxy, knowing Odin’s trust in him would be broken forever. The outcome of Ragnarok had been foretold by the witch Gullveig to Odin in Loki’s presence eons before when even Odin’s considerable foresight would prove unable to avoid the fatal confrontations between foes and inevitable deaths on both sides of the battlefield. If the doom of the gods and giants had been so securely foretold, this story explored what events could have led to Loki’s irredeemable actions and final rebellion against Odin.

research, Short Stories, stories, Writing

Writing for Leo (Zodiac Series, #8)

In July 2020, my Gaslamp fantasy “The Golden Lion-Monkey” was published in short story anthology Leo (The Zodiac Series, #8) by Deadset Press. When not exploring myth and history, I am pursuing a PhD in human and primate evolution. When writing “The Golden Lion-Monkey”, I’ve combined my interests in history and fantasy fiction with my expertise in evolutionary Primatology.


My main character Rosanna Corrano is a wealthy heiress but in my alternate Victorian era society, she can keep her inheritance only through marriage and where the inheritance becomes the property of her her future-husband. Rosanna has long been struggling against societal confines and developed an alternate male persona, Dr Leo who as a man the Victorian society can achieve the education, respect and freedom that Rosanna cannot. Through courtship with a wealthy man, an owner of a London printing press, Rosanna begins to realise her persona as Dr Leo is not entirely fictitious, she is both Rosanna and Leo, her existence has become a duality.

In my story “The Golden Lion-Monkey”, my inspiration for a female scientist in the Victorian era was in-part drawn from the historical figure of fossil hunter Mary Anning. Like many women of her time, without money, social status and a husband, Mary Anning had few options. She was very poor and unmarried but she supported herself by selling shells on the Lyme Regis coast in Dorset county. She was also involved with providing ancient fossils she discovered on the Dorset coast to male scientists. Her expertise at fossil hunting was so good that many scientists owed careers and great discoveries to her and she was consulted for her knowledge of the anatomy in many of the giant fossil marine vertebrates she discovered. Victorian society prevented Mary from being a member of the Geological Society (women weren’t admitted until 1904) nor could she be a professional natural scientist like her male counterparts. But even in her lifetime, her significant contribution was recognised with the members from the British Association for the Advancement of Science and the Geological Society of London arranging payment of an annual stipend to support Mary. Despite this, she was not listed as an author on any of the scientific discoveries she contributed to. Although some women in Victorian society did have careers as authors, artists and scientists, they were few and often socially ostracised for the choice. It is certainly true that higher social status and wealth allowed more independence over the uncertainty of survival. Ada Lovelace was the daughter of English poet Lord Byron and Annabella Byron and an engineer, inventor, author and mathematician, but her individual circumstance was very rare.

In the confines of society where women were unable to support themselves without a husband or pursue a life of their own, I drew inspiration for my character of Rosanna from female historical figures who disguised themselves as men to either pursue a employment, express their sexual orientation and in some cases marry or to embrace the duality of their own gender. I was initially inspired by the historical fiction novel Goddess by Kelly Gardiner which explores some of the life of seventeenth century Frenchwoman Julie d’Aubigny.

In my story, “The Golden Lion-Monkey”, Doctor Leo describes a new species of monkey from the Brazilian jungles, refuting claims by other scientists that such a marvellous creature must be Fae in origin. The other scientists consider the tiny monkey so impossibly unique it must be Fae rather than a non-magical creature. Among the scientists, Doctor Leo considers the uniqueness of the lion-monkey as a wonder itself, beyond any magic.
The inspiration for the monkey described in my story comes from a real-life tiny primate native to the jungles of Brazil. Although I have changed the scientific name of the monkey described in my story, the tiny monkey closely resembles the highly endangered Golden Lion Tamarin found in the jungles surrounding Rio de Janero, Brazil. The plight of these tamarin monkeys is dire with latest estimates suggesting as few as 1,400 adults in the wild. This species of tamarin is not found anywhere else in South America and their numbers are decreasing.


My Gaslamp fantasy “The Golden Lion-Monkey” is published in Leo (Zodiac Series, #8) by Deadset Press alongside other great speculative fiction from Australian and New Zealand authors.

research

Iceland: Volcanoes and Glaciers

In early September 2019, I visited southern Iceland for a week. As part of my research into Viking Age history, the legends and mythology, landscape has been important in shaping Icelandic legends. I was fortunate enough to see some of archaeological and cultural history of National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik, ride Icelandic horses, visit several iconic waterfalls and tour the some of the unique Icelandic landscape.


Southern Iceland boasts stunning waterfalls, glaciers and volcanoes. The largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull is located within Vatnajökull National Park which contains the largest and most active volcanoes in Iceland. On the southern side of Vatnajökull, the glacier completely covers the volcano beneath. Known as Öræfajökull, the glacier enveloping the volcano is also the highest peak in Iceland with the mountain peak, Hvannadalshnúkur reaching 2, 000 m above sea level. Although peaks in Iceland are not high but European standards, the entirety of the huge glacier Vatnajökull, envelops several active volcanoes. The size of Vatnajökull is impressive with the Ring Road skirting the edge of the glacier along the coastline from just east of Vik and continuing past Hof which was the furthest extent of our tour.

A closer view of a southern outlet glacier of Vatnajökull and the tallest peak Hvannadalshnúkur visible on the left with the glacier spreading across the flatter meadows below the mountain ridges.
The path of the outlet glacier from Vatnajökull as it spreads across the landscape below, an impressive thick wall of glacier.
A clear image of the passage of the glacier has carved through the mountain ridge with the peak of Hvannadalshnúkur obscured by low cloud in the background.
A smaller, glacial outlet carves a path through the basalt rock, the slow progression of the glacier and force required for the rock to be worn down or moved over time is incredibly impressive.

Myrdalsjokull, is the fourth largest glacier in Iceland and located further west toward Reykjavik than Vatnajökull but the outlet glacier, Sólheimajökull is popular for glacier walks and all-year tours with frequent monitoring of the nearby active Katla volcano located beneath the distant ice cap of Myrdalsjokull. The outlet glacier Sólheimajökull is easily accessible via sign-posted valley entrances off the main the Ring Road along the southern coastline with a 20 minute hike to a glacial lagoon.

The 20 minute hike to the Sólheimajökull glacier includes traversing the edge of the lagoon formed by glacial melt. Each year the size of the lagoon increases with warmer global weather influencing the temperature and extent of thawing and glacial melt each year. In Iceland, the constant volcanic activity means that the glaciers are often streaked or covered in volcanic ash and these are known as “dirty glaciers” due to their black streaked appearance from frequent volcanic eruptions. The lagoon is also formed from volcanic sand and large pinnacles of volcanic ash are common on the glacier surface.

Sólheimajökull glacier where it meets the lagoon is visibly streaked with volcanic ash revealing the older glacier layers of pale blue beneath.
A closer example of the height of the glacier itself as we hiked across the front edge and the volcanic ash that covers the surface of the glacier.
An example of a large cavernous opening in the glacier used by experienced climbers for tours. A large mound of volcanic ash is obvious in the foreground.
A narrow crevices visible while walking across the glacier surface also shows how freely melt water flows through the glacier and the entire structure is constantly changing form.
This stretch of the Myrdalsjokull continues another 22km toward the pole. In the near distance, a large pinnacle of volcanic ash with the uneven glacial surface covered in ash typical of the “dirty” glaciers.
The expanse of the glacier continues toward the basalt mountain ridges but the passage the glacier has carved through the surrounding rock is impressive.
A good view of the observable layers in the glacier with the alternating ash deposits and glacial layers
Contrast between the surrounding mountain ridges of the valley and the glacier outlet as it progresses through the landscape
The surrounding mountain ridges have numerous waterfalls which empty into the outlet glacier, the larger expanse of Myrdalsjokull also extends across many of the surrounding mountains behind where we were hiking
View from the surface of Sólheimajökull glacier tracing a narrow crevices extending back toward the ice cap of Myrdalsjokull
As we headed back from the hike, it began to rain. The rain began to quickly melt the glacier carving these flowing tunnels into the surface of the ice we were walking across.

The final view looking back to Myrdalsjokull as the weather closed around the glacier and lagoon, rain and light snow obscuring much of the way back we had come.

A short video on Solheimjoskull glacier showIng some of the surrounding landscape filmed despite the incredible strength of the erratic wind across the glacier threatening to knock me down if not for the crampons holding fast in the ice.

Writing

Bone Arrow: Important Update

In the coming months, I’ll be doing a significant edit on my historical fantasy Bone Arrow which was inspired by Amerindian prehistory and fables. All previous editions of Bone Arrow will no longer be available. I’ll be sharing my latest research and editing developments as the new edition of Bone Arrow progresses.

research, Writing

Icelandic Waterfalls Part 2

I visited Iceland in September 2019 as part of my writing research for novel-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming. Part of my Icelandic experience was the National Museum of Iceland, riding tour outside Reykjavik on the iconic Icelandic horse, exploring glaciers, black sand beaches, glacial lakes which influenced the Viking and Icelandic culture.


Gljúfurárfoss

Gljúfurárfoss is also known as its translation “dweller in the cave” referring to the large boulder that blocks the front of the waterfall, almost enclosing the waterfall itself and making it accessible only by the narrow cleft in the rock and by crossing the rivulet.

A large basalt boulder encloses most of the waterfall, leaving the freezing water of the Gljúfurá river as the only entrance and exit to the cavern and Gljúfurárfoss itself. The stepping stones are difficult to navigate but provide a narrow path along the edge of the slick and uneven cliff walls to where the cavern expands at the base of the waterfall.

Gljúfurárfoss drops from the height of 60m to the cavern floor. Another large basalt rock is positioned directly adjacent to the base of the waterfall. The cavern is freezing where the icy spray cascades from the waterfall and is trapped within the rock confines of the cave.

The view of Gljúfurárfoss where the Gljúfurá river cascades over the edge of the cliff, the rock surface covered in the dense moss and lichen. The Gljúfurá river has its source in the Tröllagil (Troll Gorge) as a spring-fed river before it passes through a marsh and along the northern edge of a lava field formed by Eyjafjallajökull glacier.

The moss and lichen covered rock surfaces of the upper part of the cavern and a view of the boulder (called Franskanef) that is suspended above the waterfall, hiding it from view on the outside and giving it the cave-like appearance.


Foss á Síðu Waterfall

Foss á Síðu is a small waterfall located in southeastern Iceland not far from the Ring Road, located between the larger settlements of Vik and Hof.

The river Fossá drops from a height of 30m over the basalt cliffs before continuing toward the Atlantic Ocean. At the foot of the Foss á Síðu waterfall is a farm inhabited since the 9th century and associated with local folklore legend of a curse, a ghost dog named Móri who cursed the family living on the farm (which is actually called Foss á Síðu), thereby cursing the family for nine generations.

Foss á Síðu is also the location of another Icelandic folklore. Located opposite the waterfall are basalt boulders called Dverghamrar or ‘dwarf rocks’ are believed to be the dwelling place of some of the ‘Hidden People’ of Icelandic folklore.


Seljlandsáfoss

Seljlandsáfoss is located 750m from the Ring Road in southern Iceland and only 29 km east from the popular Skogafoss waterfall. One of the most iconic Icelandic waterfalls, a deep pool of water at the base and sheltered space behind the waterfall itself provides a unique experience.

Seljlandsáfoss cascades over the ancient sea cliffs, falling from a height of 65m into a deep pool of water at the base of the waterfall called Kerið or Fosske.

A large cavernous space behind the waterfall provides some shelter from the drenching spray and allows some magnificent photography.

Seljlandsáfoss has its source in the Eyjafjallajökull glacier and during the warmer months, the glacial melt swells the Seljalandsa river, making Seljlandsáfoss one of the more powerful Icelandic waterfalls.

research, Writing

Icelandic Waterfalls Part 1

I visited Iceland in September 2019 as part of my writing research for novel-in-progress Ragnarok Dreaming. Part of my Icelandic experience was the National Museum of Iceland, riding tour outside Reykjavik on the iconic Icelandic horse, exploring glaciers, black sand beaches, glacial lakes which influenced the Viking and Icelandic culture.


Írárfoss (Irish River Waterfalls)

The Írárfoss waterfalls are located in southeastern Iceland, where the river Írár flows from its source in the nearby Eyjafjallajökull glacier. The largest of three waterfalls from the Írár river, the Írárfoss waterfall is not considered among the more famous of southeast Iceland’s waterfalls with the larger and more spectacular Seljlandsáfoss waterfall located 10km west of Írárfoss.

As with many of the waterfalls in Iceland’s southeast, the source of the main rivers lie higher in the glaciers in the surrounding volcanic mountains. The rivers descend into the lowlands below via waterfalls, where rivulets and brooks are numerous throughout the lush meadows.

These glaciers and volcanic landscapes are also responsible for the black basalt rock that lifts above the lowlands meadows which are often suited for grazing horses and sheep.


Skógafoss Waterfall

Skogafoss waterfall is one of the most visited waterfalls in southern Iceland and is easily accessible just 500m from the Ring Road. Located 6km from Selfoss waterfall, the Skogafoss is one of the most powerful and impressive waterfalls in southern Iceland.

The Skogafoss is also associated with a legend of buried treasure by a Viking Age sorcerer, Þrasi Þórólfsson, who was responsible for directing the flow of two rivers during a great flood which is also associated with the volcanic eruption of in the Mýrdalsjökull Caldera. The legend of the artefact known as Þrasi’s ring is believed to be part of the treasure buried behind Skogafoss waterfall.

I was fascinated by these stone formations protruding from the front of Skogafoss. These reminded me of the Icelandic folklore about the trolls who become stone if caught by sunlight. These oddly shaped, moss and lichen covered rocks somehow seemed like figures to me, sitting beside the waterfall in the castoff from the spray.

Skogafoss is only 62m high and 32m wide but the strength of the waterfall is impressive with the view from above as waters plunge dramatically over the mossy edge, the rising spray and circling sea birds adds a drama to the small but powerful waterfall.

The view from the top of Skogafoss waterfall, the hiking track continues toward Þórsmörk, following the river Skogar upstream between the two glaciers, Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull and past numerous lesser waterfalls.

A view from the top of Skogafoss waterfall of the opposing cliffs overlooking the lowlands and the abundant farmlands that now occupying the fertile meadows where the sea once was. In the distance, the current shore of the sea is just visible, now located about 5 km from Skogafoss waterfall.

The vista from the top of Skogafoss of the lowlands and a distant remnant of the former sea cliffs that is now an isolated promontory in the middle of the lowlands.

The view opposite Skogafoss waterfall shows natural and untamed landscape with the cliffs consumed by passing low cloud as the autumn storms pass out to sea.

The cliffs surrounding Skogafoss are rugged and formed into striking rocky pinnacles and natural stone formations reminiscent of fantastic landscapes.

After the Skogafoss waterfall, the river Skogar continues to flow across the rich black sand beach at the base of the waterfall and out through the lowlands toward the sea.

Skógafoss waterfall is now located less than 5km from the sea but the black sand coastline has receded over time, with these former sea cliffs now isolated promontories rising above the lowlands.

The river Sokogar forms into many rivulets with the lowlands covered in black pebbles and black sand, the remnants from previous volcanic eruptions and the annual glacial melt. These natural changes to Icelandic landscape are visible on such a massive scale throughout southern Iceland and are some of the most memorable landscapes I’ve ever seen.

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Iceland: National History Museum

In September 2019, I visited the National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik. While in Iceland, I visited many of the wonderful major natural landmarks in the National Parks in the southern Iceland. You can read about my experiences riding Icelandic horses, exploring waterfalls, volcanoes and glaciers, an iceberg lake and black sand beaches.


The National Museum of Iceland in Reykjavik is situated on a slight hill, overlooking pleasant gardens, walking pathways and a feature lake against the city centre. On the opposite hill is the imposing white form of Hallgrímskirkja, the iconic Lutheran parish church of Reykjavik.


One of the most iconic figures of Viking Age and Icelandic archaeology is the tiny bronze statue of Thor known as the Eyrarland Statue recovered from farmland near Akureyri, Iceland in the 1850s. It is believed to depict a scene from the Prose Edda where Thor recovers Mjollnir during a wedding ceremony, seated with the customary Icelandic cross-shaped hammer between his knees.


Items recovered from Viking Age settlements show the lifestyle and intricate artisan work of jewellery makers from the Viking Age. The square-shaped box brooches worn by women to pin dresses, various designs for cloak pins, silver earrings and pendants plus beaded necklaces.


The weapons recovered from archaeological excavations in Iceland were from the Viking Age with weapons including long swords made from iron, spear heads, arrow head and shield boss, and a range of battle axe heads also made from iron. The two Viking Age battle swords are placed diagonally across the display and were recovered from graves in South Iceland.

A Viking Age sword blade with sword hilt inlaid with bronze recovered from excavations along with several spear heads.

A 19th century sword and several Viking Age axe heads, the larger two are 10th century battle axe heads recovered from South Iceland.


The items recovered from archaeological excavations from south Iceland in the Pjorsa Valley, where settlements were buried beneath constant pumice and ash fall after volcanic eruptions and depopulation of the entire was expected to have occurred. The archaeological evidence reveals the Pjorsa Valley was continually inhabited despite volcanic activity with the presence of settlements indicating it remained a key trading route connecting North and South Iceland from settlement until the 17th century. Archaeological finds recovered included trade goods, weapons, jewellery and household items.


The horse was incredibly important to Icelandic culture and archaeological excavations have recovered decorated bronze stirrups, elaborate cheek pieces for horse bridles, bits and items of harness.

An example of a bronze stirrup from a Viking Age saddle and an accurate replica showing the detailed engraving and metalwork.

A burial of a Viking Age warrior from Iceland buried on horseback with a battle long sword across his back, the remnants of wooden scabbard still covering the blade. The burial also includes an axe-head, shield boss, arrows, coins and stones. The requirements of any man travelling into the unknown. The burial is continued into next image which includes the remains the warrior’s horse.

The burial of the mounted warrior was impossible to capture in a single image. The horse burial indicates that this was an Icelandic horse, the same breed as the only native horse in Iceland today. Connections between of the burial and the importance of the horse in Viking Age culture are obvious, everyday life relied on horses for battle, transport and labour. There are also reminders between a warrior’s death in battle and the female spirits of Norse myth, the Valkyries, who collected the worthy dead on the battlefield to feast with Odin in Valhalla.


Another of the burials in the Museum is this one possibly of a missionary with numerous grave items including the clam shells common among religious missionaries and monks that travelled throughout Europe and into Iceland.


One of the strongest themes in Viking lifestyle was the connection of each man and woman to the Fate laid out by the gods. Of course, the gods were answerable to their own pre-determined fate and the Norns were the beings responsible for weaving the futures of men and gods alike. The classic description of the Norns weaving is the loom where entrails are used instead of yarn and the scissors that cut the red thread from the weaving are cutting life from the tapestry. The weavers, the three Norns are the mysterious and revered figures that tend for Yggdrasil and seem answerable to none but themselves.


Weaving was an important part of common Viking Age liftsyle with the necessity to keep protected from the harsh climate and landscape encouraging the herding and shearing of the flocks of sheep. These sheep eventually became native to Iceland like the horse and their sturdy forms provided meat, dairy and wool for the Vikings. It allowed products such as mittens and wool-lined boots to be created on the looms.


The traditional farm and household implements from Viking Age settlements were simple equipment not much different from Iron Age settlements with tools for ploughing fields, constructing turf houses, various grinding stones for preparing grain before baking, bronze house keys and cooking implements.


The classic image of Vikings displays them as uncouth and unclean but there are many examples of the importance good personal appearance and cleanliness had for Viking culture. The stories of the uncivilised Vikings was obviously a matter of perspective from the opposing side and probably also a good deal propaganda. Skilled craftsmanship is clear is the elaborately carved bone drinking horns.


Viking Age bone hair combs, beaded bracelets and arm bands.


Viking Age culture includes the adaptation of many technologies recovered from Viking raids. The influences of the Irish Celtic culture on Iceland are several such indicators where papar appears in connection with the Irish monasteries. Dozens of copies remain of The Old Covenant, a legal document detailing how Iceland was subject to Norwegian rule, the Norwegian Logretta would administer justice for disputes giving its rulings on a regular basis.

A sheet of restored parchment from a copy of Jonsbok, the first written legal code for Iceland dated prior to the 14th century. The code includes segments of the Old Icelandic Commonwealth approved in 1241 and the includes Iceland falling beneath the Norwegian Logretta, the rule and judgement of the law courts and king of Norway.


A copy of the Book of Icelanders dated to 1681. The original was first written by Ari the Wise in 1130 AD and provided the first written history of the Iceland from discovery to settlement.


Trade was an essential part of Viking culture and the Icelanders were no different. The early settlements of Iceland were founded on trade between different settlements and when required, warfare between them. The hoarding of silver and gold was common in times of war or uncertainty to protect valuables from being stolen by the opposing force. The silver hoard includes gold coins and in the upper section of the display, an example of the scales used in trade to price valuable objects against pre-defined weights that many Vikings carried with them.


An example of different small carvings from the Viking Age on the upper left and right images which may have also been used as game pieces.

In 1000 AD King Olaf of Norway began pressuring those settlements under the control of Norway to become Christian. In response, Iceland did so without bloodshed through a meeting of the Alþingi, a gathering of Icelandic chieftains which is recognised today as Icelandic Parliament. The Alþingi decided to adopt Christianity and despite the formal declaration to worship as Christians, only a few Icelandic Chieftains were actually baptised. Many ornaments, jewellery and artwork indicate a combination of pagan and Christian beliefs were retained well into the 18th century in Iceland. The silver 10th century cruciform pendants indicate the blending of Christian and pagan motifs.

Viking Age traders used pre-defined weights to determine the value of trading items. Goods were priced according to weight and these stones with bronze inlay indicate a set of specific weights for trading purposes.

An example of 17th to 18th century crupper bosses from horse harness which were engraved with prayers and charms to protect the horse during battle.

Writing

Latest: Ragnarok Dreaming

I am very pleased to announce my current work-in-progress fantasy novel, Ragnarok Dreaming is very nearing the finishing line. I have just finished writing the third Part of the novel, the draft has already expanded beyond my anticipated length with the new word count expected to be around 130,000 words. Of course, there’s a lot editing to do on later drafts yet! I‘m ready to begin writing Part 4 in the coming week and can’t wait to finish this incredible writing journey that has taken me literally from Australia to Iceland. Keep watch for more updates as the final pieces of this story fall into place!

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Iceland: The Icelandic Horse

In early September 2019, I travelled to Iceland and visited Eldhestar Icelandic horse trekking company located less than 30 minutes drive southeast from the capital Reykjavik. The Icelandic horse was brought to the island by the Viking settlers. You can read about about Icelandic Viking history and the history of Reykjavik here. There are also a series of posts on iconic southeastern Icelandic waterfalls, glaciers and volcanoes and iconic Icelandic landscape.


Sculpture at Eldhestar stables, Iceland

Eldhestar translates to “volcano horses” in Icelandic and aptly named Eldhestar riding stables are located in the valley beneath the volcano Hengill, a region populated by natural hot springs, geysers and rivers. The nearby town of Hveragerði has a thriving horticulture industry using extensive greenhouses where heating and electricity is supplied by geothermal power from the nearby active Hengill volcano.

Town of Hveragerði, geysers, meadows

The Icelandic horse is native to Iceland, being brought to the island with the Viking settlers and isolated from other horse breeds throughout much of history. For this reason, Icelandic horses have not been exposed to other equine viruses if horses leave Iceland, they cannot be re-introduced but most be left in mainland Europe. There are also no other horse breeds allowed in Iceland but nearly every farm, hamlet or paddock contains Icelandic horses which outnumber the human population according to a public census several years ago! Icelandic horses are also semi-domesticated and, for the most part, are not stabled and even spend the harsh winter months foraging for feed in the snow drifts. This hardy character and the endurance of the breed to travel extensive distances over the volcanic rock and challenging terrain makes the horses beloved by many Icelanders.


Eldhestar guide & fellow tour member

I was interested in the Icelandic horse for several reasons. First, I had to see these legendarily tough horses for myself. They are certainly smaller than I’d expected but not in a noticeable way. When moving, they can cover huge amounts of ground with a very large stride, which includes the unique tolt, a gait that occurs naturally in most Icelandic horses. This trot, is uniquely fast and a longer-stride which is surprisingly comfortable.

My guide with Eldhestar was wonderful and the Icelandic horse I was riding (Freya) was enthusiastic and free-willed (a trait that I admire and seems expected in a breed that needn’t rely on human assistance). The Eldhestar riding tours can be as large as a month-long trek across the island, where an entire support team of horses are required, riding horses swapped each day for fresh mounts. In true Icelandic fashion, the 3-4 horses for each rider follow the riding line in a free-moving herd.

Apologies in advance for some jerky and imperfect video of a herd of Icelandic horses, the amazing landscape in the fertile floodplains.

Icelandic horses, meadows, estuary & distant Hengill volcano at Eldhestar Riding Stables, Iceland
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Australian Tawny Frogmouth Folklore

The tawny frogmouth is a species of nocturnal bird native to much of Australia. It is well known in Australian landscapes for the staring red-gold eyes, the camouflage resembling a branch or broken tree stump and it’s seemingly unworried response to human presence.

I was walking in the early morning at a pine forest near where I live and was fortunate enough to spot a tawny frogmouth camouflaged against a pine tree trunk.

Although the tawny frogmouth is often considered like an owl, it is more related to a nightjar but many Australian nocturnal birds share similar symbolic roles in indigenous fables and folklore.

Among the indigenous cultures of the Noongar from Western Australia, the nocturnal birds like the tawny frogmouth and owls were associated with the shamanic powers of the ‘clever men’ and the opposing dangerous forces of night:

Traditionally associated with the dark totem, the owl was believed to be a totemic familiar of the ‘boylya-man’ or sorcerer (”clever man”) and the darkness of night was perceived as a dangerous time when ghosts and supernatural spirits were ever-present.

Owl Beliefs in Nyungar Culture by Ken Macintyre and Barb Dobson.

The shamanic healers of many different indigenous Australia nations and cultures are sometimes known ‘clever men’ and in the Noongar cultures of Western Australia, the clever men were sometimes associated with the nocturnal birds to protect their tribe:

It is not uncommon to hear stories of how certain bulya or ‘clever’ men were believed to have the ability to transform themselves into a night bird such as the owl or mopoke and under this guise were able to watch over and ‘police’ campsites at night time to ensure that the inhabitants were safe from intruders, and also to act as a deterrent against young men becoming involved in sexual transgressions prior to initiation, or breaking the incest taboo. Culturally, the owl may be viewed as an agent of social control in that it is able to fly silently throughout the night, and aided by its powerful, penetrating night vision, is able to watch over people’s night time activities and then report back to the ‘clever man’ to whom it is considered a type of “familiar spirit’

Owl Beliefs in Nyungar Culture by Ken Macintyre and Barb Dobson.